This paper deals with the problem of Xenophon’s representation of Socratic διαλέγεσθαι (dialogic conversation). The author analyzes selected examples of its use by Xenophon in his adaptation of the Socratic ethics in Memorabilia and compares it with Plato’s use of διαλέγεσθαι in his early dialogues. The main hypothesis of this paper is that the Socratic use of διαλέγεσθαι should not be identified with Socrates’ use of elenchus (ἔλεγχος). The author suggests an implication of this hypothesis is that the question-answer turn-taking form of διαλέγεσθαι is not its essential feature. He attempts to demonstrate that what constitutes the essence of both Socrates’ use of διαλέγεσθαι in Xenophon’s Memorabilia 4 and of Odysseus’ use of persuasive speech in Antisthenes’ Odysseus or on Odysseus is the purpose of examining and transforming one’s individual ethos (ἦθος).