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Translation as a Critical and Cultural Approach: The Case of Translating Latin Poetry into Arabic (An Overview)
Magda El-Nowieemy Alexandria University, Egypt magda_now@yahoo.com

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 7, Issue 1

 | pp.

42-52

Abstract:

The Arab World, especially Egypt, is now living in a period of abundant translations into Arabic from the original Greek and Latin texts. This has helped cross the borders and make classical writers accessible to the Arab readers. In this regard, we may distinguish three levels or types of readers in the Arab World: firstly general public, secondly educated and learned amateurs, and thirdly specialized academicians and students. The Arab translator of Latin poetry faces many problems of translation, and accordingly has to handle them, as persuasively as possible, to pave the way for the Arabic translation to meet the demands of the readers, seeking their endorsement. The Arab translator also has to elucidate the cultural context in which a Latin poem was written by enriching his translation with commentaries and notes, otherwise the translation may be meaningless and tasteless to the Arab public audience. The translator, at the same time, cannot help avoiding his (or her) critical sense to be in work during the process of translation. In my present paper, I argue that translating Latin poetry into Arabic is a creative re-construction that involves both critical and cultural perspectives.
Was Socrates educated by Alcibiades?
Andrej Kalaš Department of Philosophy and History of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovak Republic andrej.kalas@uniba.sk
Zuzana Zelinová Department of Philosophy and History of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovak Republic zuzana.zelinova@uniba.sk

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 7, Issue 1

 | pp.

20-41

Abstract:

The best-known historical character who is connected to Socratic education is Alcibiades. The link between this pedagogical relationship and the ancient notion of παιδεία can be found in almost every author of Σωκρατικοὶ λόγοι. Scholars of ancient philosophy concur that all Socratic works on Alcibiades were meant as a unified response of sorts, on the part of Socrates’ circle, to Polycrates’ Accusation, with the objective of demonstrating Socrates’ innocence. There would seem to be no reason to doubt Socrates’ positive effect on Alcibiades. On the other hand, we cannot question the Alcibiades’ undeniable negative side of Alcibiades. The aim of this paper is to answer a controversial question: how could Socrates the philosopher have been educated by the arrogant Alcibiades? Whereas most contemporary scholars consider Alcibiades solely as a student of Socrates (as receiving a Socratic education), we approach the matter from the other way around: we wish to establish the extent to which Alcibiades acted on Socrates, in a certain sense, thus educating him (even if unintentionally). In our paper, we focus on Aeschines’ and Plato’s portrayals of Alcibiades.
A kinesiological approach to the role of the Chorus in Aristophanes’ Plutus
Ioanna Mastora Ph.D. Phil, Athens University, Postdoctoral Researcher, Athens University Department of Philosophy joannamastora@gmail.com

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 7, Issue 1

 | pp.

14-19

Abstract:

The article attempts to present basic elements of political ideology that can be found on the choral performances of the Aristophanes’ comedy named “Plutus”, which is his last surviving work. The comedy was presented to the Athenian audience in 388 BC to glorify and demonstrate the unfair distribution of wealth and the social inequalities, while highlighting the decline of human values. In spite of the fact that in this work the Chorus has a diminished role nevertheless refers to the unjust distribution of wealth and the explosion of corruption with an interesting kinesiological approach.
TRIUMPH AND POETIC GLORY IN OVID
Paola Gagliardi Università degli Studi della Basilicata paolagagliardi@hotmail.com

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 7, Issue 1

 | pp.

1-13

Abstract:

My paper focusses on the treatment of the triumph as a metaphor for poetic glory in Ovid. In the Augustan poetry the triumph theme is treated predominantly from a political perspective, but images and situations of the ceremony are also used from a literary point of view. Ovid in particular gives this topic original and ambiguous features.
Oh my God! You’re in the Army Now: An Analysis of the Horus-in-Uniform Images
Jeff Cutright Guanmei International School Dongguan Guangdong, China cutrij@yahoo.com ABSTRACT:

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 6, Issue 2

 | pp.

45-58

Abstract:

The author argues that images of the Egyptian deity Horus, dressed as Roman soldiers, are works of Roman propaganda. While the focus here is on the statue from the British Museum, EA 36062, the argument applies to similarly attired images of Horus. Several Egyptian cults spread across the empire, but were rarely depicted as soldiers, and for this reason, one must ask why Horus was shown in this way. The proposal is that such images intended to tell the native Egyptian viewer that since Horus was a servant of the empire through enrollment in the army, the viewer should be also.
Keywords:Egypt, Horus, mythology
The concept of the refugee and immigrant in the ancient Greek world: privileges and limitations.
Ioannis Papadomarkakis University of the Aegean Rhodes, Greece gpapadom@otenet.gr
Maria Kaila University of the Aegean Rhodes, Greece kaila@rhodes.aegean.gr

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 6, Issue 2

 | pp.

28-44

Abstract:

This article examines the ways in which the literature of classic Greece depicts the concepts of migration and displacement. Different literature styles, such as history, drama and comedy approach the theme, underlining in this way the dense social impact it occupied. Through the revisiting of various classic extracts, this research aims to illustrate the way classic Greece was standing towards both the forcibly exiled and the willingly migrated, to the degree at least, this permeated classic works. Finally, this work aims to draw parallels between the past and today, regarding how the refugee is perceived.
The World Description Made in Zhou bi Suanjing Has Been Revealed
Raul Perez-Enriquez University of Sonora, Mexico raulpe55@gmail.com

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 6, Issue 2

 | pp.

19-27

Abstract:

A millenary description of the world as conceived by Chinese culture, appears in the Zhou bi Suanjing or “The book of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of the Heaven”, according Needham. Situated at Zhou (a legendary city) the dimensions of the earth and heaven, including the size of the Sun are presented in this book. The Chinese Gaì Ti’an astronomical model of a flat earth and a flat heaven, is measured with the aid of a gnomon (biao) and the application of the Pythagorean Theorem. Now, after making an adjustment to the scale of the data, the elements to locate the legendary Zhou City have been found making feasible the correspondence between the dimensions of the Zhoubi’s given world and those of the actual Earth. Here I show that Zhou, centre of the world from which the measures are done, corresponds to the city Jining located in the province of Shandong, China; also, I confirm that the distance between Jining and the Pole of Zhoubi is 4,285 km as could be found with a geographical tool such as the Google-Earth program. With these results I am confident to say that: The city of Zhou appearing in the Zhoubi exists; and, that the Zhoubi was an accurate description of the Earth at the time of Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 256 BC). Moreover, the location of cities as important as Beijing (at 498 km to the north of Jining) would be related with projection of the heaven on The World Description Made in Zhou bi Suanjing Has Been Revealed Earth: it is about one diameter of Sun from Jining. Also, it important to know that this city is recognized as the birth place of the great philosopher Confucius, giving to my findings a relevance that goes beyond the field of Astronomy or Mathematics, in which frame the Zhoubi has been analysed through the years. These findings put new perspectives for the search in other non-mathematical or non-astronomical documents elements for these disciplines.
DESCENT INTO WILDERNESS: KATABASIS OF DISPLACED HEROISM IN CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN’S EDGAR HUNTLY
Imelda Corazon Wistey Iowa State University icwistey@iastate.edu

ELECTRYONE 

2020
Volume 6, Issue 2

 | pp.

1-18

Abstract:

In Charles Brockden Brown’s novel, Edgar Huntly, or Memoirs of a Sleep-Walker, the main character, Huntly, traverses the American wilderness to retrieve Clithero and discover the truth of Waldegrave’s murder. This journey into the woods imitates the literary trope of a katabasis, or descent to the underworld by the archetypal hero. However, Huntly’s epistolary narrative, however, reflects the problematic attempt on his part to qualify himself as a hero. Displaced within his story as a failed hero-figure because of his unreliable narration, his text remains elusive as a moral story, unlike most classical mythological hero tales such as The Odyssey and The Aeneid. In this paper, I use Huntly’s story to foreground his displaced heroism when writing about his descent into the American wilderness. Additionally, I compare and contrast Huntly’s journey with the classical katabasis and how the dangers of the American wilderness transforms into an underworld. Huntly does emerge from this underworld, but he becomes a destructive force. Lastly, I posit that, while Huntly’s narrative parallels the mythological hero’s journey to the underworld and back, the portrayal of his displaced heroism inverts the archetypal hero story and challenges the morality of America as a new nation.
Subjects:Mythology
Asymmetries in sculptured heads of ancient greek intellectuals
Evi Sarantea evi.sarantea@hotmail.com

ELECTRYONE 

2019
Volume 6, Issue 1

 | pp.

39-56

Abstract:

Some sculptured heads of ancient Greek intellectuals, preserved today in Roman copies, are portrayed with asymmetries (dissimilarities between the two sides) and are of special interest. Dissimilarities usually involve the size, the shape, or the positioning of the eyes. Some slight deformation of the left side of the face is noticeable. These asymmetries occur in a small percentage of the Roman copies, and it is thought by the author that they are deliberate and intentional. They fall within a particular manner of rendering of the figures which runs through the centuries-long Greek tradition of portraiture from the Archaic period to the Byzantine era. The sculptors of the Roman age produced copies of the original heads of distinguished ancient Greek intellectuals, differentiating their appearance slightly and designing them with calculated asymmetries. In this way they drew attention to the superiority of these figures to ordinary people, or a sense of awe felt towards these spiritual benefactors of mankind. Certain of the differences between the right and left side of the heads are possibly associated with Dualism.
Subjects:Uncategorized
“Their Head Full of Fragments”: Newfoundland Author Al Pittman’s West Moon, Monuments, Fragments, and Ruins
Stephanie McKenzie Memorial University

ELECTRYONE 

2019
Volume 6, Issue 1

 | pp.

28-38

Abstract:

This paper is written in a narrative style to enhance points made about different cultural stories. It compares Newfoundland author Al Pittman’s play, West Moon, with ancient monuments in Greece in order to underscore how important it is for different cultures to understand each other’s monuments and ruins. While there are no ancient ruins in Newfoundland comparable to those in Greece, the ruins spoken of in West Moon (the mostly deserted traditional outports, or fishing villages) carry an importance similarity to ancient Greek monuments. They speak of traditions, a connection between past and present, and cultural ways, and they ultimately make one aware of the importance of a culture. The paper considers how some cultures have oral “ruins” as much as oral continuance, the latter based on the passing down of stories, and how both oral and written monuments are equally important. Inevitably, this paper turns briefly to a consideration of today’s refugee crises and posits that the recognizing of cultural continuance and remnants of monuments (carried with people through memory and narrative) might help break down the hopeless divides between “us” and “them.”
Subjects:Uncategorized