Volume 5 Issue 2
1. Konstantina Gongaki, “THE PLATONIC MYTH OF GYGES AND THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE IN MODERN-DAY SPORT AND THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.1-10
Plato recounts the myth of Gyges (Republic), forefather of King Croesus, who served the then archon of Lydia. Gyges found a magic ring that gave him the ability to become invisible to others. Wearing the ring, he went to the palace, made the queen his lover, killed the king and took his riches. Thus, the shepherd, with the help of the ring, annihilated the king and took the throne himself.
The obvious message of the myth is pointed out by Plato himself: Those who apply justice do so not of desire but because they cannot do otherwise. But if license were given to both the just and the unjust to do as they wished with impunity and we observed where their desire led them, we would ‘catch’ the just one selecting the same path as the unjust. This, is because every person, by nature, aspires to avarice as something good, and only by law is forced to respect equality. If, therefore, such a ring is worn by both the just and unjust man, neither would appear such an upstanding character so as to remain true to justice, if he had the ability to, without fear, do anything he desired, Plato maintains.
The myth of Gyges has corresponding applications in the field of modern-day sport, as a ‘record’ turns the athlete into a Croesus, who has everything at his feet. But the myth, has analogous applications in modern world as well. How many, in truth, wearing Gyges’ wondrous ring and being able to use the advantage it offers with impunity would not do so? They are very few, those who, although possessors of the ‘magic’ ring, have the strength of character, the moral fortitude, to resist the temptation. These few, the only ones capable of rejecting the lure of avarice, are the chaste, Plato intimates.
2. Byron-George Zattas, “Gravitational Waves and Plato” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.11-26
The recent announcement (11 Feb 2016) of the detection of gravitational waves caused by the collision of two black holes, verified Einstein’s theory of their existence. Since this discovery is a pre-view of the creation of gravitational waves at the Big Bang, it urges us to investigate if this was predicted in Plato’s Timaeus where the creation of the universe is described. In the space-time, which is an “ocean” of energy-matter and which by being curved is perceived as the creation of particles and sensible things, the movement is not a spacial movement, but it is actually propagation of a perturbation and hence transmission of properties. The perturbation that is caused by the quantic fluctuations at the Big Bang should also produce, in theory, gravitational waves.
Since the description of the “chora” in Plato’s Timaeus refers clearly to the space-time, the whole process that is narrated in the Timaeus, among other things, describes actually the creation of such waves. Being that as it may, a further study and elaboration in the cosmological view of Plato, may reveal very important new philosophical aspects related to modern Cosmology.
3. Ioanna Mastora, “ARISTOTLE’S PEDAGOGICAL PHILOSOPHY” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.27-32
Classical antiquity, education had been formed in proportion with the social and political system of each city-state, as Aristotle briefly formulates in his work Politics (1310). Social education is the core of his political and pedagogical philosophy, aiming at shaping the worthy citizen and underlying a clear distinction between the individual (=idiotis) and the citizen (=politis), since “the whole must necessarily precede the party” (Politica 1253a19-24). His pedagogical approach focuses on an all-round psychosomatic balance and development. The system of his pedagogical philosophy is based on Ethics (Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics). The pedagogical approach presupposes experience and teaching, since virtue has two natures: the intellectual and the moral one, through which wisdom and intellect can be achieved. The philosopher laid the principles of formal logic as the basis of the scientific research, however, Rhetoric and Poetry keep an important position, the reason being human mankind is “mimetic”. The present article starts with Aristotle’s work as a student at Plato Academy and ends with his pedagogical work on the exemplary “twin” (teacher-student) Aristotle – Alexander. The pedagogical philosophy of Aristotle is proven as primarily practical.
4. Magda El-Nowieemy, “Silenus on the Universe: Philosophy and Cosmogony in Virgil’s Eclogue 6” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.33-48
Eclogue 6 of the Roman poet Virgil (70-19 BC) is one of the most famous poems in Latin pastoral poetry. It has an individuality of its own. In this poem, Virgil, as a poet with a sophisticated and philosophical mentality, forms a new kind of pastoral poetry. He merely employed the pastoral genre as a frame to allow him to touch upon intellectual, philosophical and literary subjects of the day.
Silenus, who was one of the old rural deities, is here the bard of Virgil’s song. He could surpass Apollo and Orpheus by his charming song. There is not one common theme in all the stories Silenus touches upon in his song.
The song starts with a non-pastoral context, a piece of Epicurean philosophy, which reveals Virgil’s early and real interest in philosophy. Then it moves from didactic description to human race and mythology. What concerns me in this paper is Silenus’ talk about the origin of the universe (Eclogue 6. 31-40), the creation of the world, and the beginnings of life, with echoes of scientific poetry. In order to gain a better understanding of Virgil’s poetry in general, and the song of Silenus as a particular, not only a knowledge of philosophy and cosmology is essential, but also a perception of Alexandria as a centre of sciences. I give Virgil credit for a real interest in Alexandria, both as a matter of poetical technique, and as sharing the scientific interests of Hellenistic Alexandria.
5. Ioannis Ch. Karydas, “THE ARISTOTLE PERSPECTIVE OF “THE POLIS” IN TODAY’S WORLD SOCIETY.” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.49-62
This paper aims to understanding perspectives of the Aristotelian Polis in today’s society. As the modern world becomes increasingly globalized, digitalized, “virtual” etc, it is important to concentrate on the basic unit at which Aristotle’s political philosophy were intended to operate under the Polis, the city –state of the ancient Greece. Looking closer at how the Polis is referred in Aristotle’s Politics, it appears that the Polis was both a geographical particular location (Oikismos) and actively participated citizens (polites) in their community through moral and virtual political involvement (Politeia). The Polis was defined as a political ensemble of participated citizens, and one Polis differs from another by its Politeia. The Polis was by nature and Men also were by nature inclined to the Polis because they are by nature inclined to eudaimonia, to happiness. The Polis was the only human institution that can allow men to be real happy living a virtuous good life. The Polis exists for the common good life and we must rethink about the common political moral conceptions of the happiness, the freedom, the self-sufficient, the real democracy. Today, the modern conception of a world nation-state or of local authorities institutions differs dramatically from that of the Polis. The Aristotelian Polis can be restart in a a way to aim to restore the ideas of the virtual life and the ultimate happiness to our urban planning attitudes. But it would be very difficult to incorporate the Aristotelian thought in relation to the present society as the world state is concerned with the external economic evaluation of the society. So it is necessary to incorporate the Aristotelian idea of the Polis by strengthening the sense of the virtual and moral way of life and the local community identity, engaging more people to participate at a local level politic life, by making real democratic political activity personal rather than a mere matter of statistics and digital icons. Finally, Aristotle should still remain an important thinker for today urban society. The Polis can demonstrate again the importance of sharing an integrate and common democratic political relationship between men – citizens and urban society.
6. Anastasia Dimitrakopoulou, George Tsoukalas, “JUSTICE: THE LINKING VIRTUE OF POLITICS AND ECONOMY” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.63-70
In this paper we will refer to justice, which is the cardinal platonic virtue, with reference to economy. It is the most basic problem which runs from the ancient to modern times since the modern societies make an attempt to combine, the economic effects on social justice so long as its aim is the prosperity of citizens. The importance of this goal for society refers to the effect of the conflict of interests between the social classes but the scale of values in every society depends on the philosophical and the political theory of the state.
7. Alexantra Ntotsika, “ABOUT THE TRUTH: ARISTOTLE AND JOHN PHILOPONUS” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.71-79
The paper is about the philosophical inquiry of truth and falsehood on the Aristotle’ s treatise ‘‘De anima’’ and the Philoponus’ commentary on the Aristotelian work (Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca). Since, the philosophical game of truth and falsehood is directly related with the cognitive process the current study mainly focuses on the definition and the analysis of the intellect, which retrieves stimuli from the senses and imagination in order to operate effectively. For that reason, there is an explanation in the two distinct chapters that are concerned with the concept of the Aristotelian intellect and its interpretation from John Philoponus, in order to extract potential philosophical differentiations or similarities.
The Aristotelian intellect (nous) anchors the initial data through a logical judgement and follows the diversity of the combinations of reality. During that combinatorial operation of logic, that derives from the senses and imagination (phantasia), it is possible for falsehood to be inducted, in such way that the combinations will no longer meet the existing combinations of reality.
The most essential element of Philoponu’ s philosophy on truth and falsehood is intertwined with the composition of a theory regarding the distinction of nous-dianoia-doxa and the distinction of simple/impartitionable (amerista) or divisible (merista) things and not of meanings. Among those, the distinction of human-divine intellect (which is identical to the truth) is preceding and that may put at risk the aristotelian work, as it could connect it with the neo-platonian theory.
8. Konstantinos Kalachanis, Milan S. Dimitrijević, Efstratios Theodosiou, “HERACLITUS THEORY OF “ΕΚΠΥΡΩΣΕΙΣ” (EKPYROSEIS) AND MODERN VIEWS ABOUT THE END OF THE UNIVERSE” (2017) Vol.5, Iss.2, pp.80-86
A key element of Heraclitus cosmology is its reference to fire as the principle and substrate of all natural processes. But apart from the material element of the fire, Heraclitus also mentions another kind of fire, the thunderbolt, which is characterized by the existence of intellect. His cosmology, however, is characterized by the ekpyroseis, that comes from the advancing of fire which is called in Greek κόρος (= saturation). and is related to the phenomenon of ekpyroseis where everything is destroyed in the fire from which comes life and death in the Universe. The theory of ekpyroseis which refers to the constant alternation between the birth and the death of the Universe is analogous to the theory of Big Crunch.